güvenilir casino siteleri 1xbet
Fill in your email address to obtain the download verification code.
Enter the verification code
Please fill the fields below, & share with us the article's link and/or upload it:
upload file as pdf, doc, docx
SKeyes Center for Media and Cultural Freedom - Samir Kassir Foundation

Monitoring MPs’ Human Rights and Free Speech Positions – February 2023

Wednesday , 15 March 2023

Background and Context


After their announcement in January 2023 to stage a sit-in inside the parliament building until a president is elected, MPs Najat Saliba and Melhem Khalaf remained inside the building in February 2023, as the parliament still failed to elect a president. During this month, many of their statements were related to this issue, as were statements made by other MPs supporting them, such as Neemat Frem. However, similarly to January’s report, such statements were not added because SKF’s monitoring focuses solely on human rights-related topics.


On February 6, 2023, an intense earthquake struck Syria and Turkey, resulting in the deaths of more than 50,000 people, and leaving thousands more injured, missing, or homeless. Residents of Lebanon felt the tremor and its aftershocks, which revived in a majority of people the traumatic memories of the Beirut blast.


The Lebanese pound underwent massive depreciation in February 2023. On February 4, 1 USD was equivalent to LBP 64,000. By February 28, the dollar had reached LBP 88,000. This sharp depreciation is having a profound impact on virtually all sectors of the economy. Numerous MPs have taken to social media to voice their concerns  about the situation. However, SKF has decided not to include these complaints in its report in order to focus exclusively on human rights issues.


Also this month, on February 23, 2023, London’s High Court held Savaro Ltd liable for the damages resulting from the Beirut blast. This ruling has sparked reactions from some MPs, including Melhem Khalaf, who posted more than 5 tweets celebrating the court’s decision. 


During this month, 19 MPs made a total of 26 statements related to human rights. The statements covered a variety of themes, with some being related to the commemoration of the assassinations of Lokman Slim (February 4) and former Prime Minister Rafik Hariri (February 14). Only one statement was related to Word Radio Day (February 13).


Not only did the number of statements highly decrease compared to last month (from 106 statements in January to 26 statements in February), but many political parties also remained silent, with zero statements during this month. These parties include Progressive Socialist Party (PSP), Ex-Future Movement, Free Patriotic Movement (FPM), Hezbollah, Marada Movement, and Amal Movement.




The 26 statements were made on Twitter and Facebook from the personal accounts of the MPs. Data was monitored throughout the 28 days of February (from February 1 to 28, 2023).


Statements were divided based on the following themes:

  • Freedom of Expression
  • Issue of Impunity (in relation to Sheikh Rifai’s murder during this month)
  • Judicial Independence
  • Women’s Rights
  • Digital Rights and Online Violence
  • Prohibition of Child Marriage.


Data Display


In the process of gathering this data, we acknowledge that the information provided cannot be considered comprehensive, but it should allow us to put forth possible hypotheses about how issues and opinions related to human rights (especially free speech) were brought up in the public political conversation in February 2023.

Figure 1. Distribution of data across Members of Parliament

Figure 2. Distribution of data across political parties and groups

Figure 3. Distribution of data across non-sectarian opposition political parties and groups

Figure 4. Distribution of data based on group type

Figure 5. Distribution of data across theme of statement

Figure 6. Disaggregation of the theme “Freedom of Expression”

Statements related to Freedom of Expression are divided into three main subtopics:

  • Free Speech and Freedom of Peaceful Assembly;
  • World Radio Day; and
  • Lokman Slim’s Assassination

Figure 7. Disaggregation of the theme “Women’s Rights”

Statements related to Freedom of Expression are divided into two main subtopics:

  • Female Leadership; and
  • Online/Digital Violence

Table 1. Distribution of data across theme of statement and group name



In February 2023, MPs’ interest in human-rights seemed to decrease in terms of online statements compared to previous months.


Out of the 26 statements, 13 were about freedom of expression (50% of all statements), five were about the issue of impunity related to Sheikh Rifai’s murder (19%), three were about judicial independence (11.5%), three were about women’s rights (11.5%), one was about the prohibition of child marriage (4%), and one was about digital rights and online violence (4%).


It is important to note that ranking can be made using two methods:

  • The first method would be to compare the total numbers of statements made by political groups (Table 2 below).
  • The second method would be to compare the percentages of members (of each group) who made statements. In other words, SKF counted the numbers of MPs who made statements and belonged to one group, then SKF calculated their percentage compared to the total number of MPs who belong to the same group (Table 3 below).

Table 2. Ranking based on absolute numbers - from the political group with the most statements to the one with the least


As per the table, Change MPs shared the most statements related to human rights in February 2023 (10 statements), Kataeb ranked second with five statements, and the Lebanese Forces and Independent MPs ranked third with four statements each.

Table 3. Ranking based on relative numbers - from the political group with the highest percentage of members who made statements to the one with the lowest percentage

As per the table, Camille Chamoun, the only MP from the National Liberal Party, made a statement related to human rights in February 2023 (100%). Three out of four Kataeb MPs made statements (75%). 50% of Independence Movement MPs, 45% of Change MPs, 33% of Tashnag MPs, 21% of Lebanese Forces MPs, and 16% of Independent MPs made statements.


Top-5 MP Ranking

  1. MP with 18 statements: Mark Daou
  2. MP with 15 statements: Ashraf Rifi
  3. MP with 14 statements: Halimé Kaakour
  4. MP with 12 statements: Ibrahim Mneimneh
  5. MP with 11 statements: Saïd El Asmar

Share News

franchising veren firmalar porno sıcak sohbet office satın al office för mac microsoft office hizlibahis güncel giriş palacebet güncel giriş palacebet pashagaming güncel giriş pashagaming royalbet güncel giriş grandpashabet güncel giriş grandpashabet betwoon güncel giriş betwild betwild güncel giriş